Cambodia

Cambodia is one the world’s poorest countries. Supply and disposal infrastructure and the health care system are underdeveloped, which in combination with poor hygiene conditions, leads to high infection rates. 20.5 % of the population lives below the poverty line and only 29 % have access to basic sanitation.

ESC-BORDA Cambodia implements decentralised wastewater solutions for hospitals and small and medium-sized enterprises to prevent discharging untreated wastewater into water bodies and to protect public health.With a population of 15 million people, there are more than 3 million schoolchilren living in Cambodia. Only 32 % of the schools have toilets, which are usually in poor condition.

Almost 50 % of the schools do not have any water supply resulting in poor hygiene and high rates of diseases, especially diarrhoea. By implementing School Based Sanitation (SBS) projects, ESC-BORDA Cambodia provides access to hygienic school toilets, including wastewater treatment, and contributes to strengthening health, reducing the number of absent days, and creating environmental and hygiene awareness among students. Access to safe toilets is particularly important for girls: many stop going to school during menstruation due to a lack of or inadequate hygiene facilities. In collaboration with the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, sanitation in project schools has been improved using a holistic approach since 2009. The core of the intervention is to improve the sanitation facilities with child-friendly toilets and implement DEWATS, along with its proper use and maintenance. The project includes not only the technical components, but also building school internal management structures for toilets and DEWATS, and promoting health and hygiene education. BORDA has also cooperated with UNICEF for several years to reaching even more schools with “School Based Sanitation“.

Education is important and school should not make you sick. Donations for supporting “School Based Sanitation” in Cambodia are needed and welcome!

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Indonesia

With over 230 million people, Indonesia is one of the most populous countries in the world. Particularly in dense, poor urban areas in western Indonesia, there is a lack of basic sanitation, including wastewater and waste management. The relatively high infant mortality rate in Indonesia is mainly due to this fact.

BORDA has been active in the country since the mid-1980s, and currently works with the three local partner organisations BEST, LPTP und AKSANSI in the wastewater and waste management. The majority of the projects are implemented on Java, the most populated island, but the partner organisations are also active in Sumatra, Sulawesi and in the particularly structurally weak eastern islands.
One focus is to implement and provide quality assurance of decentralised wastewater systems for poor urban areas.BORDA’s Indonesian partners have implemented more than 700 decentralised wastewater treatment projects. In addition, BORDA and its partners support hospitals, schools and small businesses with wastewater management and the sustainable use of biogas.

The environment and public health are not only impacted by wastewater, but also by waste. As such, since 2003 BORDA and its partners have implemented projects combining decentralised wastewater management with composting and recycling facilities. Together with the German climate protection organisation atmosfair, BORDA received certification in 2014 according to the CDM Gold-Standard: The aerobic composting of household organic waste as well as reducing the amount of waste aims to reduce climate changing methane emissions. A current project with 15 recycling centres offsets the emissions of 5,000 tonnes of CO2equivalents per year.

By training local professionals, implementing quality control measures, regularly monitoring infrastructure, and conducting research on technical and institutional aspects, BORDA makes an important contribution to the sustainable development of decentralised wastewater and waste management in Indonesia.

Laos

Laos, the small Southeast Asian country with around 7 million people, is one of the least developed countries in Asia. The efforts of the government, supported by international and national organisations, are leading Laos on an increasingly sustainable path of development. Natural resource wealth contributes to a steady economic growth of more than seven per cent. The related poverty reduction brings Laos on track to achieving its 2020 vision of not being one of the least developed countries in the world, as classified by the United Nations. Since 2006, BORDA has been active with local NGOs in the areas of water supply and wastewater treatment. BORDA has been represented in Laos with its own project office since 2011. In collaboration with the Ministry of Construction and Transport, BORDA is developing and implementing decentralised solutions for municipal wastewater management.The joint action plan aims to improve basic sanitation in schools and residential areas.

As such, BORDA supports building institutional capacity in the construction industry, universities, government, and civil society through training in planning, construction and legal frameworks for decentralised wastewater treatment systems. In addition, quality assurance in construction, operation and maintenance along with aspects of impact assessment and monitoring are taught.

Myanmar

Myanmar, with its population of about 60 million, is a politically and economically important country in Southeast Asia. After decades of political and economic isolation, the country has been in transition since 2011.About a third of the population lives below the poverty line, the infrastructure is still in great need of improvement.

Myanmar is also the country with the greatest biodiversity in Southeast Asia; however, it only recently implemented its Environment Protection Act in 2012. Also, with the opening of the country, there is concern about increased environmental destruction.

BORDA has been active in Myanmar since 2012, focusing on the cities of Yangon, Nay Pyi Taw and Mandalay. Since then, BORDA has established networks with local and international organisations, professionals and policy makers, and carried out feasibility studies for wastewater management. Local government officials and water management professionals have participated in conferences and trainings held in India and Indonesia. In 2013, BORDA hosted the first national DEWATS workshop in Yangon for local governments and professionals from local and international organisations.

In 2014, BORDA established a Myanmar office and first DEWATS pilot projects for schools, poor urban areas and small enterprises were implemented, in close cooperation with the local government and organisations.

Philipines

Since the turn of the millennium, the Philippines, with nearly 100 million people, has experienced a very positive economic development. Nevertheless, almost a quarter of the population lives below the national poverty line, and one third works in the agricultural sector, often as subsistence farmers. The mortality rates of children and mothers remain high. With nearly 7,000 islands, the Philippines has one of the world’s most diverse ecosystems, which has been heavily polluted and exploited during the course of industrialisation.

BORDA has been cooperating with the organisation Basic Needs Services (BNS) Philippines since 2005.

BNS conducts projects to combat poverty, conserve natural resources, and protect the environment. In several regions, BNS Philippines works closely with local governments to implement DEWATS in public institutions like schools, markets and universities. To work effectively on site, BNS Philippines has set up representatives in Dumaguete in the Visayas and in Iloilo on Panay Island. Another focus is supporting small and middle class enterprises in sustainable wastewater management.

As part of the GIZ programme “Fit for School“, BNS Philippines provides sanitation technical expertise for local schools.

Vietnam

Vietnam, with about 90 million inhabitants, has recovered from the Asian crisis in the 1990s and experienced an economic upturn due to reforms and joining the WTO. However, good economics cannot hide the fact that according to the World Health Organization, more than 20,000 people die every year due to polluted water and inadequate sanitation and hygiene.
Half of all communicable diseases in the country are due to a lack of sanitation and hygiene.

BORDA established an office in Vietnam in 2001 and has been closely cooperating since 2008 with the Center for Training and International Cooperation (CTIC) of the Vietnam Academy for Water Resources (VAWR). BORDA coordinates the design of DEWATS projects in urban and peri-urban areas.
In Vietnam, about 20 million children do not have access to basic sanitation. Only 73 % of the schools have latrines, less than half of them meet national standards. BORDA Vietnam promotes hygiene measures and provides solutions for integrated sanitation in schools.

Another focus are small food production enterprises. They are important for developing the country, but their untreated wastewater threatens the health of local communities and the environment. Therefore, BORDA implements DEWATS in “craft villages“, communities in which small enterprises produce high polluting foods like noodles, tofu or meat products, to treat wastewater and generate clean energy.